Some of the more common menstrual problems include:
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) – hormonal events before a period can trigger a range of side effects in women at risk, including fluid retention, headaches, fatigue and irritability. Treatment options include exercise and dietary changes.
Dysmenorrhoea – or painful periods. It is thought that the uterus is prompted by certain hormones to squeeze harder than necessary to dislodge its lining. Treatment options include pain-relieving medication and the oral contraceptive pill.
Menorrhagia – or heavy menstrual flow. If left untreated, this can cause anaemia. Treatment options include oral contraceptives and a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) to regulate the flow.
Amenorrhoea – or absence of menstrual periods. This is considered abnormal, except during pre-puberty, pregnancy, lactation and menopause. Possible causes include low or high body weight and excessive exercise.
Organisations that specialise in this area of reproductive and/or sexual health