The main points

  • A diaphragm acts as a barrier method of contraception
  • You can insert yourself at home
  • A new single size is available and is 82-86% effective

A diaphragm acts as a barrier method of contraception. It fits inside a woman’s vagina and covers the cervix (entrance to the womb) to stop sperm from meeting and fertilising an egg. Other barrier methods include male and female condoms.

How diaphragms work

The diaphragm is a soft, shallow, silicone dome with a flexible rim. It fits inside a woman’s vagina and covers the cervix. It stops sperm from entering the uterus (womb) and meeting an egg. A diaphragm needs to be fitted by a doctor or reproductive health nurse.

You can put in a diaphragm any time before having sex, as long as it is not left in place for more than 24 hours at a time. If you have your period, it should be put in just before having sex.

The diaphragm is held in place by the vaginal muscles. It needs to stay in place for at least six hours after having sex. During this time, any sperm left in the vagina are killed by the normal vaginal secretions.

There are two types of diaphragms currently available in Australia. The traditional diaphragm is fitted by a doctor or nurse and is available in four sizes. It is between 88 and 94 per cent effective in preventing pregnancy, as long as it is fitted, positioned and used the right way. This diaphragm is being withdrawn from the Australian market.

A new single size diaphragm called Caya® is available. It is between 82 and 86 per cent effective. The size will be suitable for around 80 per cent of women.

Advantages of using a diaphragm

  • It will not change your menstrual cycle.
  • You can put it in any time before having sex.
  • You can use it when you have your period.
  • It can be washed and used again.
  • It lasts for up to two years.

Disadvantages of using a diaphragm

  • Some women find it difficult or do not like putting it in.
  • You may find it uncomfortable if the size is not right for you.
  • You may have a higher risk of urinary tract infections.
  • It does not give the best available protection against sexually transmissible infections (STIs).

Having a diaphragm fitted

You will need to see a doctor or reproductive health nurse for your first fitting of a traditional diaphragm and again for a refit if:

  • the diaphragm passes its use-by date
  • you have a baby
  • you gain or lose three or more kilograms
  • the diaphragm feels uncomfortable.

Many women find it helpful to see a doctor or nurse to check that they are placing the single-size diaphragm correctly.

Using spermicide or gel with a diaphragm 

Doctors recommend using spermicidal gel (gel that kills sperm) with a traditional diaphragm, but it is not available in Australia. Many women choose to keep using the traditional diaphragm without spermicide because the research suggesting the gel makes the diaphragm more effective is limited. If you would like more information, you can speak with a doctor or reproductive health nurse.

The single size diaphragm, Caya®, is designed to be used with Caya Gel®.

Other types of contraception

There are many different types of contraception available in Australia. A doctor or reproductive health nurse can give you more information about your options. 

When choosing a method of contraception, it is important to consider your general health, lifestyle, relationships, and your current and future needs. It is also important to weigh up the benefits and side effects that may come with each method.

Diaphragms & sexually transmissible infections 

Diaphragms are not used for protection against sexually transmissible infections (STIs). It is important to practise safer sex. The best way to lessen the risk of STIs is to use barrier protection such as male and female condoms with all new sexual partners. Condoms can be used with the diaphragm for vaginal and alone for oral and anal sex to help prevent the spread of infections. A diaphragm acts as a barrier method of contraception.

Where to get more information, support or advice

This information has been produced in consultation with and approved by: Better Health Channel

Better Health Channel


This website provides general information only. The suitability of such general information  varies  from   person  to   person,  depending  on individual circumstances.   You should seek specific medical or legal advice for your individual circumstances.

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Last updated: 5 June 2016

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